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Types of Electronic Components


Electronic components are devices used to regulate the flow of electrons in an electric circuit. They usually feature multiple leads or terminals that connect directly to other electrical components over the wire. Find out the best info about MAX4651ESE-T.

Electronic components can generally be divided into two main categories, passive and active. Passive components cannot produce, amplify, or control signals (like switches).


Transistors are semiconductor devices used to switch electrical power or amplify electronic signals. As such, they play an essential role in many electronic devices, such as computers and smartphones.

A transistor has three terminals: Base (b), Collector, and Emitter. A small current at the base can alter or switch a much larger current between collector and emitter terminals to create amplification.

Bipolar junction transistors (BJTs) are among the most widely-used transistors. Their base region contains heavily doped electrons, while their collector region contains moderately doped holes.


Diodes are electronic components that control current flow. For example, you’ll often find diodes used as rectifiers in electronic circuit designs to convert AC voltage to DC voltage.

Diodes can also be found in RF circuits, digital circuits, and many other applications. In addition, different kinds of diodes exist that are specifically manufactured and optimized for various uses.

The most prevalent diode type is the p-n junction diode. This junction contains regions composed of both n-type material and p-type material. When applied with a positive voltage, electrons move from the n-side to fill gaps on the p-side, causing narrowing.


Capacitors are electronic components used to store energy as an electric charge and are found in most electrical and electronic devices.

A capacitor consists of two conductive plates separated by an insulating material known as dielectric, such as air, paper, ceramic, or plastic film.

Capacitors have many uses, from decoupling circuits to tuning radios. Furthermore, capacitors have the power to absorb voltage spikes and store energy for later use.


Resistors are passive components designed to restrict the flow of electric current. Resistors may be used in various applications, such as voltage division and heat production.

An array of resistors on the market with differing properties impact their performance, some providing improved power dissipation while others can handle higher voltages more comfortably.

Resistors play a critical role in any circuit and can significantly influence its performance and reliability, so selecting the appropriate type for any given application is crucial. Understanding key parameters that define resistor specifications can assist with this decision-making process.


Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are semiconductors that emit visible or infrared light when an electric current passes through them. They are widely used in electronic components like indicator lamps, rear windows, and strobe lights.

LEDs are constructed from semiconductor materials doped with zinc or nitrogen impurities to form their light-emitting diodes (LEDs).

Doped semiconductor materials possess a bandgap that facilitates electron and hole separation and determines the wavelength or color of light emitted from them.


Switches are one of the cornerstones of electronic circuitry. Regulators are essential in interrupting the electric current flow from one circuit to the next.

Electrical equipment employing switches of different types depending on their application’s requirements; these may include rotary, maintained, and solid-state switches.

A rotary switch rotates around a fixed axis and connects multiple contacts alternately. It may either operate stepped or smoothly.

Select a switch with an appropriate rating for the maximum current it can handle to avoid physical damages like overheating and deformation.

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