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Durable and Dependable Alloy 46 and Kovar Alloys


Certified alloys can ensure regulatory compliance and give you peace of mind that your product will perform to specifications. One such certified alloy, Alloy 46, is an iron-nickel alloy that offers excellent resistance against oxidizing and non-oxidizing environments and pitting corrosion, crevice corrosion, and stress corrosion cracking. Receive the Best information about alloy 46.

Due to its low coefficient of thermal expansion, aluminum is an ideal material for glass-to-metal seals as it won’t experience any dimensional changes with temperature fluctuations.


Alloy 46 (UNS K94600 or NiLo46) is a nickel-iron alloy with 46% nickel by weight, boasting excellent strength, flexibility, and corrosion resistance in marine environments. Used extensively offshore oil and gas equipment and popularly chosen for pipe systems, vessels, tray baskets, or components for chemical processing and maritime industries due to its low coefficient of thermal expansion and excellent weldability properties.

Alloy 46 is a vacuum-melted controlled expansion alloy with very uniform physical and mechanical properties, thanks to being produced within tight chemical limits during vacuum melting. Its thermal expansion characteristics mimic those of borosilicate glass and alumina ceramics for hermetic seal applications; Alloy 46 also boasts low magnetic permeability, making it suitable for electronic components and devices.

Steel’s exceptional mechanical properties also make it ideal for many forms of fabrication. With excellent machinability – that means being easily cut, drilled, and machined – and superior corrosion resistance properties, it makes cold working easy without losing strength over time.

Alloy 46 stands out for its excellent machinability and polishability. Both qualities make for uniform lapping, ensuring accurate bore dimensions – crucial for precision manufacturing – and its homogeneous microstructure that responds well to heat treatment, making it suitable for button rifling.

Alloy 46 stands out as an ideal material to withstand exposure to various reducing acids, such as hydrofluoric, hydrogen fluoride, and sulfuric acids. Alloy 46 boasts the highest resistance among nickel-iron alloys against sulfuric acid in reducing conditions, making it suitable for applications including coal handling equipment, pulverizers, coke ovens hoppers, barge liners tank linings, and other abrasion-prone applications such as barge linings or tank linings – plus petroleum or gas turbine components!


Alloy K94600 is widely utilized due to its exceptional corrosion resistance, oxidation fatigue strength at high temperatures, and excellent fatigue resistance and creep resistance properties. As a result, Alloy K94600 makes an ideal material choice for gas turbine components that must withstand mechanical loads and harsh environments – the alloy’s high creep and thermal fatigue resistance help ensure it will withstand these challenging environments.

Nitronic 30 is an austenitic nickel alloy produced through vacuum melting with a narrow chemical composition, boasting excellent formability, ductility, weldability, and tensile strength of 265KSI. Furthermore, this material is nonmagnetic as well as resistant to sulfuric acid and other aggressive chemicals, making it suitable for applications including coal handling equipment, marine/oil/gas well rigging valves, shafts, chains, cables, pump parts, and nonmagnetic fasteners.

Alloy K94600 boasts excellent corrosion resistance and fatigue strength, but its low expansion coefficient ensures superior machinability. Thanks to this feature, Alloy K94600 can be machined without warping or distortion in essential elements of tight tolerance applications such as aerospace and defense industries.

K94600 alloy is also widely utilized in exhaust systems of both industrial and aircraft engines, where its high resistance to hot gas corrosion, thermal cycling fatigue, oxidation resistance, and antimicrobial protection make it the ideal material to help avoid premature failure of other materials in these conditions. Oxidation resistance also plays a key role by helping prevent harmful byproducts from forming in an exhaust system.

Alloy 46 is a controlled expansion alloy comprised of 46% nickel and the remaining iron. It is typically used to seal artificial sapphire, soft glass, and ceramic sealant products and features outstanding mechanical properties with up to 120,000 psi tensile strength and creep resistance at elevated temperatures, along with nonmagnetic nonoxidation resistance at cryogenic temperatures. Alloy 46 also exhibits exceptional microstructural features, including gamma prime (g’) and double prime (g”) residues, which contribute significantly to its performance as it resists corrosion at cryogenic temperatures compared to other nickel-iron alloys containing no nickel content.

Heat Treatment

Kovar is an iron-nickel-controlled expansion alloy widely utilized across numerous applications. With its low coefficient of thermal expansion, it maintains its shape and dimensions over a wide temperature range – particularly useful in environments with dramatic temperature swings. Kovar’s compatibility with glass makes it an excellent solution for glass-to-metal sealing in electronics applications, and its strength, durability, and corrosion resistance make it suitable for use in industries like aerospace, precision instruments, and cryogenics.

Proper heat treatment must occur to maximize the mechanical properties of K94600 alloy. Annealing should occur before cold working, and temperatures above 1100degF should never remain for prolonged periods. Furthermore, solution treatment and aging treatment will help produce optimal mechanical properties in this material.

Heat treatment of K94600 alloys typically involves quenching and tempering. This process allows them to achieve greater tensile strength and hardness while increasing flexibility and removing internal stresses caused by cold working or stress relief processes.

Welding K94600 alloys is generally straightforward, yet special precautions must be taken when working with this material. The weld area should be preheated and free from contaminants before welding begins; additionally, specific filler metals rated for your application should be used by your welder. Heat treatment should also be carried out according to strict protocols to prevent cracking or failure of the weld joint.

As with other nickel-based alloys, K94600 is susceptible to attack by many reducing acids; however, its resistance to fluorine compounds and hydrofluoric acid at all concentration levels makes it one of the few suitable alloys for direct contact use. Furthermore, it can withstand reducing conditions at elevated temperatures as well.


K94600 comes in several forms depending on its application. Invar is a nickel-iron controlled expansion alloy with a highly consistent coefficient of thermal expansion from room temperature up to 932 degrees F (500 degrees C), making it suitable for applications requiring low growth, such as machine tools, glass sealing, and forming.

Invar is a cold-formed metal that can be easily deep-drawn from an annealed strip and cold-headed and stamped. Fabrication does introduce stresses into the material, which, left unaddressed, could alter its thermal expansion behavior; to address these tensions post, forming stress relieving treatments are highly recommended.

Alloy 46 is an iron-nickel alloy designed primarily for electronic applications that involve sealing to glass surfaces. This alloy can be cold worked to various tempers as determined by customers or manufacturing requirements, making it suitable for filling in electronic assemblies.

Following Generation Metals stocks this hardenable martensitic stainless with a centerless ground finish to maximize machinability, making it perfect for gun drilling, reaming, and uniform lapping for bore accuracy and precise button-rifled groove diameters. It also allows precision button rifling for proper groove diameters.

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