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What exactly is Keratoconus?


Definition of Keratoconus:

Your message keratoconus is derived from Greek along with Latin. Kerato means cornea and CONUS means cone-shaped. It is a bilateral, accelerating, asymmetric, noninflammatory thinning along with an ecstatic condition of the cornea, resulting in a high degree of unpredictable myopic astigmatism.

Prevalence: Keratoconus is estimated to occur throughout 1 out of every 2000 folks in the general population. Right now there appears to be no significant variety with regards to either men or women.

It is possible to usual age of onset of keratoconus?

The onset of keratoconus is usually between the ages of twelve and 30. The changes in the shape of the cornea normally occur slowly over a long period.

Symptoms: Symptoms depend on typically the severity of the disease. The most prevalent symptoms include:

• Unreadable vision.

• Distortion associated with vision.

• Photophobia.

• Glare.

• Eye Discomfort and itching.

• Regular spectacle power changes.

• Inability to wear contact lenses.

Leads to:

The cause of keratoconus remains not known, although recent research appears to indicate the possible leads to include:

• Keratoconus is actually thought to involve a problem in collagen, the cells that make up most of the cornea.

• Keratoconus has a hereditary component and studies reveal that about 8% associated with patients have affected family members.

• It happens more often than in individuals with certain medical troubles, including certain allergic situations.

• Some think that serious excessive eye rubbing might cause keratoconus.


(A)Based on keratometry reading:

1 ) Mild: Keratometric readings are much less than 45D in both meridians.

2 . Moderate: Keratometric parts are between 45D along with 52D in both meridians.

several. Advanced: Keratometric readings are generally between 53D and 62D in both meridians.

4. Critical: keratometric readings are in both equal meridians more than 62D.

(B)Based on morphologic shape:

1 ) Nipple Cones: Characterized by their very own small size (5 mm) and steep curvature. Typically the optical centre is often sometimes central or para-central along with displaced inferonasal.

2 . Square Cones: Which are larger (5-6 mm), ellipsoid and generally displaced inferonasal.

3. Globus Cones: These are the largest a lot more than 6mm and may involve more than 75% of the cornea.

Medical Features:

1 . In the early phase, impaired vision in one eye is caused by progressive Irregular myopic astigmatism with steep keratometry reading.

2 . Scissor response on retinoscopy.

3. Ophthalmoscopically shows an “Oil scrap reflex”.

4. Munson sign-Bulging of lower lid within downgaze.

5. Fleischer Ring-Epithelial iron deposits in the base of the cornea. The system of iron deposition is not really clearly understood. It may be an unequal distribution of tears.

six. Progressive Central or paracentral stromal thinning with substandard apical protrusion.

7. Vogt striae-Fine deep vertical stromal folds which temporarily vanish on digital pressure.

eight. Rizutti sign-conical reflection about the nasal cornea when gentle is shone from the provisional, provisory side.

9. Prominent corneal nerves.

10. Acute Hydropes-Corneal edema resulting from tears Caused by ruptures of the Descemet’s écorce and acute seepage on the aqueous humour into the corneal stroma and epithelium. All these breaks usually heal in 6-10 weeks and the edema gradually clears.

11. Changing corneal scarring, depending on the severity of the disease.

Associations: Typically the ocular and systemic interactions of the keratoconus include:


• Vernal conjunctivitis.

• Blue sclera.

• Aniridia.

• Ectopia Lentis.

• Retinitis Pigmentosa.

• Leber congenital amaurosis.


• Down syndrome.

• Ehlers-Danols syndrome.

• Marfan symptoms.

• Atopic dermatitis.

• Osteogenesis imperfecta.

Exams as well as Tests:

• Visual acumen testing: Visual acuity is definitely an indication of the clarity or even clearness of one’s vision. This is a measurement of how well an individual sees.

• Refraction: The actual refraction test is an eyes exam that measures an individual’s prescription for eyeglasses or even contact lenses.

• Slit Light examination: The slit lamp fixture is an instrument consisting of some sort of high-intensity light source that can be centred to shine a thin piece of light into the eye. Typically the slit lamp examination gives a stereoscopic magnified view of the eye structures in detail, which allows anatomical diagnoses to be generated for a variety of eye conditions similar to keratoconus.

• Corneal topography: Corneal topography, also known as photokeratoscopy or video-keratography, is a low invasive imaging technique for mapping the surface curvature of the cornea. The three-dimensional map can be a valuable aid. It is also utilized in the diagnosis and remedying of a number of conditions; in preparing refractive surgery such as LASER EYE and evaluation of the results; or in evaluating the fit of contact lenses or diagnosing keratoconus.



Spectacles: In the early stages of the keratoconus, spectacles are usually successful in correcting the myopia astigmatism associated with the keratoconus. But in serious cases, it does not give top quality vision due to a higher amount of corneal toxicity.

Disposable lenses:

1 . Soft contact lenses: In the first stages of the keratoconus soft contact is helpful. Because soft contact gives good comfort. In advanced stages, soft disposable lenses cannot correct irregular astigmatism. So, soft contact lenses are generally not useful in advanced stages regarding keratoconus.

2 . Rigid Gasoline Permeable contact lenses (RGP): Because the condition advances, the cornea becomes highly irregular and also vision is no longer adequately fixed with spectacles and gentle contact lenses. Rigid gas penetrable contact lenses are then needed to provide optimal visual aptness. Rigid gas-permeable improved lenses enable to vault within the cornea, replacing cornea`s malocclusions by filling tears in between the cornea (front surface with the eye) and back floor of the RGP lenses along with a smooth, uniform refracting floor to improve vision.

3. Capitalise contact lenses: Ideal fitting of a rigid gas permeable contact over a cone-shaped cornea can is not possible. To get excellent fitting and good image outcomes some practitioners work with piggyback contact lenses. This method will involve placing a soft contact lens, including one made of silicone hydrogel, over the eye and then healthy an RGP lens in the soft contact lens.

4. Rose-K Lens: Rose-k lens seemed to be introduced by Dr Paul holmes rose in 1995. That lens is the world’s normally prescribed gas permeable contact lens for keratoconus. This contact lens has a complex geometric design and style. Here are six different shapes at back surface of the lens and decreasing optic zone as the base contour steepens. The material of the contact lens is Boston.

5. Boston ma sclera contact lens: In the advanced circumstance of keratoconus to postpone the surgery Boston sclera contact lens is very helpful. It truly is made of material that allows air to pass through to the eye, greater diameters (15 to 24mm), edges rest on the sclera or white portion of a person’s vision and the central optic sector (12mm) is designed to completely vaults over the irregularly shaped cornea. These larger lenses are likewise more stable than standard gas permeable contact lenses.


Penetrating Keratoplasty: In concerning 15% of cases, often the keratoconus progresses to the stage everywhere corneal transplantation is required to gain better vision.

Corneal Collagen Cross-linking with Riboflavin (C3-R): A new, minimally invasive technique called Corneal Collagen Cross-linking with Riboflavin (vitamin B) and ultraviolet-A (UVA 365nm) is called C3-R.

The treatment is done in an operation theatre under comprehensive sterile conditions. Usually, just one eye is treated within a sitting. The treatment is performed employing anesthetic eye drops. The top eye (cornea) is given application of Riboflavin eye is categorized for 30 minutes. The eye is now exposed to UVA light to get 30 minutes.

The combination of Riboflavin drops and ultraviolet light reacts together with the tissues in the cornea, toning up them by creating considerably more ‘cross-linking’ among them. The resulting greater stiffness and rigidity in the cornea stabilizes corneal ectasia. Hence, the treatment takes about an hour or so per eye. After the remedy, antibiotic eye drops are usually applied; a bandage lens may be applied, which will be taken out after a few days.

However, one particular need to understand that Collagen cross-linking treatment is not a cure for keratoconus, rather, it should slow the progression of the condition. However, following the cross-linking treatment, it makes the patient more at ease to wear contact lenses.

Complications regarding keratoconus:

• Patients together with even borderline keratoconus should never have laser vision a static correction. Corneal topography is done just before laser vision correction to be able to rule out people with this condition.

• There is a risk of rejection following corneal transplantation, but the possibility is much lower than with other wood transplants.

When to Contact a Medic?

Young persons whose imaginative and prescient vision cannot be corrected to 20/20 or 6/6 with cups should be evaluated by an eye fixed doctor experienced with keratoconus.

Does indeed keratoconus affect both views?

Yes, keratoconus generally has effects on both eyes. Keratoconus is defined as a bilateral condition; the level of progression for the two views is often unequal.

Does keratoconus cause blindness?

Keratoconus doesn’t cause total blindness. But it surely can lead to significant vision disadvantages resulting in legal blindness.


There are no preventive measures. Several specialists believe that patients together with keratoconus should have their attention allergies aggressively treated and may be instructed not to stroke their eyes.

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